Inkjet Inks and Toners
(Click here for our Injet Inks and Toners brochure.)
PAMAM dendrimers, at low additive levels, dramatically improve water resistance and adhesion of inks to a variety of porous or nonporous substrates such as paper, glass, plastic, or metal. Their water and alcohol solubility permit formulation of low VOC inks. These polymers exhibit Newtonian flow behavior for shear stability in these formulations. In toners, they impart good admix and flow characteristics, stable properties, and high image quality.
In vitro Diagnostics
PAMAM dendrimers are widely used in a variety of automated immunoassay and molecular diagnostic clinical platforms. The dendrimer improves analysis speed and sensitivity and a wide variety of antibody and signaling moieties can be conjugated to its surface. Detection of several cardiac markers and allergens are commercially performed and applications continue to expand. They can also be used in lateral flow immunoassay schemes (tabs) with enhanced detection sensitivity. Commercial use is also seen in molecular diagnostic/PCR amplification schemes targeted at rapid infectious disease identification including nosocomial infections. Additionally, PAMAM dendrimers are utilized in non-antibody based universal phosphoprotein detection, using specifically modified surfaces.
In Vitro Gene Transfection
PAMAM dendrimers are used in in-vitro transfection of a broad range of cells with DNA. They form dendrimer:DNA complexes that provide reproducible high transfection efficiency and have low cytotoxicity.
PAMAM dendrimers are known for their mildness-enhancing characteristics and can function as compatibilizers, protective agents for biological actives, controlled release additives and improved delivery/adherence of cosmetic ingredients. They can be readily modified with tailored “HLB” for specific applications, and commercial applications continue to expand.
Controlled Drug Delivery
A variety of molecules, such as drugs and other therapeutic agents, can be loaded both in the interior void space and on the surface of PAMAM dendrimers to control the rate of release of these agents into the body.
Promising Areas of Research
PAMAM dendrimers are highly effective agents for the delivery of a wide variety of genetic materials into many cell lines. As synthetic non-viral vectors, PAMAM dendrimers can be specifically designed to minimize immune responses, cytotoxicity, and effectively stabilize polynucleic acids against nucleases for efficient delivery. They are under active investigation in in vivo genetic therapies.
PAMAM dendrimer conjugates with paramagnetic ions are being studied for use as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents.
Due to their organized structure, ease of modification, and strong adsorption behavior to a variety of substrates, PAMAM dendrimers can be specifically tailored with a variety of exo- and endo-receptors for specific detection of many analytes. Employed as monolayers, stacked films or nanocomposites they can be used as sensitive, selective sensors for hazardous material detection.
PAMAM dendrimers can form stable interior molecular nanocomposites with metal cations, zero-valent metals, other electrophilic ligands, and semiconductor particles. These materials are actively being investigated in electronics, optoelectronics and catalysis.
Size Standards/Molecular Templates
The exceptionally uniform molecular size of the various PAMAM dendrimer generations enable their use as calibration standards or precise "scaffolds" and templates to make organized thin films and stacked layers.